The Tesla Howitzer
... Nikola Tesla had discovered and was utilizing a new type of electric wave. Tesla repeatedly stated
his waves were non-Hertzian, and his wireless transmissions did not fall off as the square of the distance.
... In the theory of the Scalar Electrostatic Potential (SEP), the idea is introduced of work accomplished on a charge brought in from a distance against the scalar field. The SEP is not a vector field, but is a scalar field. Indeed, scalar potential cannot of itself perform work on a charged mass due to the extremely high SEP of the vacuum itself. Only a differential of SEP between two spatial points can produce force or accomplish work. (Rigorously, a differential of scalar potential between two spatial points constitutes a vector. Only a vector can produce force and do work.) Also, work can only be done on a mass. Further, it takes TIME to move an electron or other charged mass between two spatial points, and so the work performed by a spatial differential of the THETA-FIELD requires TIME. Rigorously, the delta SEP is voltage, not SEP per se, and is directly related to the voltage or "E" field.
The entire voltage concept depends on the work performed in moving a mass, after that mass has moved. The idea of "voltage" always implies the existence of a steady differential of THETA between two spatial points for a finite length of time, and it also involves the assumption of a flow of actual mass having occurred. SEP, on the one hand, is always a single-point function; on the other hand, difference in potential (i.e., V) is always a two point function, as is any vector. Yet many graduate level physics and electromagnetics papers and texts erroneously confuse THETA and V in the static case! Such an interpretation is of course quite incorrect.
Another common assumption in present EM theory -- that the electrostatic potential (0,O) of the normal vacuum is zero - has no legitimate basis. In fact, we know (0,O) is nonzero because the vacuum is filled with enormous amounts of fluctuating virtual state activity, including incredible charge fluctuations. And by virtue of its point definition, (0,O) must be the "instantaneous stress" on spacetime itself, and a measure of the intensity of the virtual state flux though a 4-dimensional spacetime point.
Potential theory was largely developed in the 1800’s before the theory of relativity. Time flowrate was then regarded as immutable. Accordingly, electrostatic "intensity" was chosen as "spatial intensity," with the connotation of "spatial flux density." This assumes a constant, immutable rate of flow of time, which need not be true at all if we believe relativity. Such a spatial "point" intensity is actually a "line" in 4-space, and not a 4-dimensional "point" at all. Thus the spatial potential - 0, 3 - is a very special case of the real spacetime potential - 0,4, or charge - and electromagnetic theory today is accordingly a special case of the real 4-space electromagnetism that actually exists! Note also that charge is a 4 - dimensional concept. Now mass is a spatial, 3-dimensional concept. Rigorously, mass does not exist in time -- masstime exists in time. Mass and charge are thus of differing dimensionalities!
Also, according to quantum mechanics, the charge of a particle - e.g., of an electron -is due to the continual flux of virtual particles given off and absorbed by the observable particle of mass. Thus charge also is conceptually a measure of the virtual flux density, and directly related to THETA. Further, since the charge exists in time, it is the charge of a particle of spatial mass that gives it the property of masstime, or existing in time. Here a great confusion and fundamental error has been thrown into the present EM theory by the equating of "charge" and "charged mass." As we have seen, the two things are really very different indeed. To speak of a spatial "amount" of charge erroneously limits the basic EM theory to a fixed time flowrate condition (which of course it was considered to be, prior to Einstein’s development of relativity). Thus when the limited present theory encounters a "relativistic" case (where the time flowrate changes), all sorts of extraordinary corrections must be introduced.
The real problem, of course, is with the fundamental definitions of electrostatic potential and charge. The spatial "amount" of charge (i.e., the coulomb), as we presently erroneously use the term, is actually the spatial amount of observable "charged mass." To correct the theory, one must introduce the true 4-space SEP and separate the definitions of charge and charged mass. Only when a mass is moved does one have work - and voltage or vector fields. (The reason one has voltage and E field connected to a normal electrostatically charged object in the laboratory is because an excess of charged-particle masses are assembled on the object, and these masses are in violent motion! A true static charge would have no E field at all.) The THETA field need not involve observable mass accumulation, but only charge (virtual flowrate intensity) accumulation.
Accumulated masses are like so many gallons of water; accumulated charge is like so much pressure on both the water (space) and the time in which the water is existing.
Now, if one varies the SEP solely as a point function, one would have a purely scalar complex longitudinal wave, and not a vector wave at all. This is the fundamentally new electrical wave that Tesla discovered in 1899. Rigorously, all vector fields are two-point functions and thus decomposable into two scalar fields, as Whittaker showed in 1903. It follows that any vector wave can be decomposed into two scalar waves. By implication, therefore, a normal transverse EM vector wave, e.g., must simply be two coupled scalar (Tesla) waves - and these scalars independently would be longitudinal if uncoupled. An ordinary transverse EM vector wave is thus two pair-coupled Tesla scalar longitudinal waves, and only a single special case of the much more fundamental electromagnetics discovered by Nikola Tesla.
A Tesla (scalar potential) wave - i.e., a massless wave in pure 0,O, the stress of the spacetime medium -would have very strange characteristics indeed. For one thing, since it moves in a complex 4-space, it has many more modes of movement than does a simple wave in 3-space. And for another thing, it need not be bound at all by the speed of (vector) light. In current theory, one 0,3 - field does not directly
interact or couple with other existing 0,3 - fields except by simple superposition. Therefore presently the THETA -field is considered to have no drag limitation at all, hence infinite velocity. (E.g., as stated in Jackson’s, (Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd edition, page 223.) Actually, a 0,4 -wave can and will interact with some of the other existing 0,4 - waves in the medium transversed, and this interaction can involve pair -coupling into EM vector fields and waves, an interaction not presently in the electrodynamics theory. The result of scalar pair-coupling creates a finite amount of vector "drag" on the 0,4 - wave, so it then has less than infinite velocity.
However, if this drag is small due to limited pair coupling, the scalar wave’s velocity through the slightly dragging medium still may be far greater than the speed of vector EM waves (light) in vacuum. On the other hand, if the pair-coupling is made severe, the THETA-wave may move at a speed considerably below the speed of vector light waves in vacuum. The velocity of the 0,4-wave is thus both variable and controllable or adjustable (e.g., simply by varying its initial amplitude which through a given medium changes the percentage of pair-coupling and hence the degree of drag on the scalar wave.)
The Tesla scalar wave thus can have either subluminal or superluminal velocity, in contradiction to present theory. Note that the scalar wave also violates one of Einstein’s fundamental postulates -for the speed of our "new kind of light" wave is not limited to c, and need not be the same to every observer. Thus Tesla scalar waves lead to a new "super-relativity" of which the present Einstein relativity is only a highly special case! ...
... Finally, the percentage of scalar waves produced by changes in charged mass pileups can be increased by utilizing charged mass streaming. Essentially the charged masses must be moved suddenly, as quickly as possible, at or near the complete breakdown of the medium. ...
... For this reason, Tesla used very high voltages and extremely sharp discharges to give "streaming" of the charged masses and thus high percentages of THETA -4 waves. This suggests that the breakdown of dielectrics is a much richer phenomenon than is presently allowed for in the conventional theory. To summarize, electrostatic potential - THETA field - is stress on the spacetime medium at a four-dimensional point. I.e., it is a sort of pressure on the medium, but pressure on all four dimensions, not just on the three spatial dimensions. ...
... Tesla’s waves were actually these THETA - field scalar waves. As such, they were fundamentally different than ordinary electromagnetic waves, and had entirely different characteristics, just as Tesla often stated. E.g., a Tesla wave can either move spatially, with time flowing linearly; move temporally only (sitting at a point and waxing and waning in magnitude --but changing the rate of flow of time itself in doing so, and affecting gravitational field, fundamental constants of nature, etc.), or move in a combination of the two modes. In the latter case, the Tesla wave moves in space with a very strange motion - it oscillates between
(1) spatially standing still and flexing time, and
(2) moving smoothly in space while time flows smoothly and evenly. I.e., it stands at one point (or at one columnar region), flexing for a moment; then slowly picks up spatial velocity until it is moving smoothly through space; then slows down again to a "standing column," etc. This is Tesla’s fabulous "standing columnar wave.
Another wild characteristic of the Tesla wave is that it can affect the rate of flow of time itself; hence it can affect or change every other field - including the gravitational field - that exists in time flow. It can also affect all universal constants, the mass of an object, the inertia of a body, and the mind and thoughts as well! ...