Institute of new cosmology and the science of time


 

UNCONVENTIONAL PHYSICS BASED ON ETERNAL OSCILATING UNIVERSE MODEL

with attempt to expose space-time-matter relationship


... try to describe our multidimensional Reality in a "pseudo 3D" ilustration-form ...

Multidimensional reality

   Excerpt from herein exposed articles:

    ... our Universe is oscillating, but so that "simultaneously", while its "inner"(for us) part is spatially expanding, at the same time its "outer" (to us) part is spatially contracting. Matter contained in the same multidimensional "sphere" neither disappears from one (inner) world, nor appears from nowhere in the other "outside" world. It just changes the place of existence according to its form and manner of motion, where black and white holes play an important role, working with their “gravitational-form” mechanisms. Owing to the manner of its motion matter is seen differently, depending on its relative motion in relation to the observer. ...
   The exclusivity of the model is reflected in that all those (stable) objects are completely equal in terms of TOTAL equality of structural essence of them all, including the "medium" they move in, be they predominantly of corpuscular or of wave nature. Everything occurring in the Unity (of spacetimematter), happens through an interaction of parts and the whole, one and the same essence expressed by energy density, where the principle of resonant relations introduces order and harmony on a whole scale of sizes. ...


Introduction

   Research conducted in the last century showed that it is an indisputable fact that energy is quantified. This fact also points to a possibility of energy density being quantified, which would assume some kind of "quantification" of space. If we look at the overall Spacetimematter unity, in a large range of sizes, from objects whose mass is almost negligible, such as a neutrino, to the entire Universe, whose mass has been estimated at around 1050 tons, we can observe the existence of numerous stable objects, both in the field of the corpuscular and in the field of radiation. The analysis leads to the conclusion that all stable objects exist in some kind of a "resonant" state where the quantity of matter, or the specific density, or better yet the energy density and the space area it fills are not randomly related, but have a completely defined ratio.

   Quantification, or the discontinuity or energy, as one of the basic concepts of modern physics, was formulated and introduced into physics by Max Planck, and in this process the speed of light plays a very important role.s.


Maximum Velocity of Moving Objects

   The Theory of Relativity is certainly not the only right way to get to know nature, but it still offers answers to a lot of questions. The problem of its perhaps insufficient precision which shows in extreme conditions, can be overcome by a correction of concepts and interpretations of Maxwell-Lorentz Theory on the speed of light in the vacuum being constant, which Einstein had taken over and postulated as unchangeable and independent of the velocity at which the light source is moving. A lot of modern science's problems, the discrepancy between the numbers of expected and "caught" neutrino particles, the insufficient density if energy obtained by cold fusion and the like, are the main motive for finding possible solutions. Exchanging experimentally measured values of quantity c, which in Lorentz's transformations denotes the speed at which light spreads, with its theoretic value (hypothesis 3), does not bring only qualitative, but also significant quantitative changes, which are especially apparent in extreme situations. This "insignificant" difference has almost no effects at low, middle and even high speeds, which is probably one of the reasons why Maxwell in his papers equaled those two values and treated them as one. Still, this change, small in the quantitative sense, results in extremely big qualitative changes. Firstly, light speed becomes possible to reach for corpuscular objects with a real stationary mass, so the particle's mass can be expressed by de Broglie's equation as a function of wavelength in a range of speeds including light speed. Now, Planck's formula for energy in the field of radiation (E=h*v) becomes completely analogous to Einstein's formula for total energy of a corpuscular object (E = m*c2), since mass now has a finite value. The fact that the energy formulas are identical, points to the energy content of the objects they refer to being identical, and therefore the conclusion is that we are, basically, dealing with the same object. In keeping with this, we no longer require the existence of some "quasi-substantial" objects such as photons, which official science has "defined " as particles without mass (?), which would be analogous to accepting the existence of an electro-magnetic wave without frequency, which we find impossible to imagine, while we accept the former postulate (the particle without mass) as completely valid (???). Let us clarify this point.
   In the model of Eternal Oscillating Universe, in the field of small, in fact "sub-light" speeds, energy expressed in the form of mass is closed in the three-dimensional sense "within" a certain volume, so this kind of motion of matter in the shape of "discreet energy packages" is expressed as a particle with a stationary mass and a corresponding radius. The same "discreet energy packages", or energy quants, moving at speeds less than the possible maximum but greater than the speed at which light travels, " are open to the outside in the three-dimensional sense", since then they are also (more significantly) moving towards the fourth dimension (see: Spatial expansion). In the four-dimensional sense, this is again "inside", but at the "other" side of the "inside" in the three-dimensional sense. We see those as radiation or energy spreading without needing a corpuscular environment. Objects moving at speeds very close to that of light, express the characteristics of both particles and waves (e.g. Dualistic nature of light).


Red shift and Blue shift

   As we already know, spectral shift of some objects (towards the red part of the spectre), observed at the very edge of our "space horizon", is very large, therefore they are moving at speeds which exceed, several times, the speed of light. An abnormally large red shift which characterizes certain objects at the border regions of Space, points either to the necessity of changing Hubble's Law (according to which the speeds at which galaxies diverge are in linear proportion to the distances between them), or to the possibility of existence of objects whose velocities exceed the speed of light several times, which is in (seeming) contradiction with the theory of relativity (in its classical interpretation).
   It is also a very interesting fact that certain objects from border areas of the Universe show a blue shift, which should by accepted laws and existing conventions in physics mean that these object are approaching us. This fact, provided that it is not the result of an error or erroneous measurements, raises serious questions about the standard theory on the evolution of the Universe, the inflation theory and all other theories based on the Big Bang model.
   The speed of objects moving away from us at a speed greater than light speed, obtained by measurements, and the observed blue shift, probably correspond to the true values, but this, according to the EOU theory, does not mean either that Hubble's Law needs to be modified, or that the Theory of Relativity is not valid, but that the multi-dimensional nature of space has not been sufficiently grasped. Therefore, the Theory of Relativity has not been applied to real space-time relations, but to some, limited, local circumstances, and the results thus obtained are in keeping with this. They are, basically, not invalid, but they are not sufficiently correct for extreme values of the variables, in other words, for the extreme "borderline" areas of the space-time structure.


Spatial - expansion

   According to the EOU model, the Universe is a closed (into itself) four (at least)- dimensional structure of spacetimematter, which is currently in the state of spatial-expansion, that being just a phase in the continuing motion between two borderline, extreme-initial states, defined by the qualities of a black and a white hole, where this motion includes both the "inside" and "outside" motion and changes of some elements which influence one another. The term "inside" here denotes anything situated on the concave side of a certain closed structure with an accepted number of dimensions.
   The term spatial-expansion assumes a four-dimensional motion transferred into our three-dimensional world, and we have to make a clear distinction between this and the meaning of classical expansion- an explosion, for instance, where particles move in all directions at once, but which is in fact the sum of a finite number of common straight-line motions, where all velocity vectors of certain elements of the expanding object have the same starting point. With spatial-expansion, contrary to an explosion, all points of (a part of) a volume or "space" are equal, since in every little part of its little parts there is a motion from the "inside" to the "outside", where there is always an infinite number of infinitely small points, and inside each of those points, in succession with the 'expanding' process there appears an infinite number of infinitely small points. In this sense, something can be inside or outside a sphere of certain dimensions, while the expressions: under, left, above and the like, cannot define the position of an object in this dimension.
   The claim that the Universe is in the phase of spatial-expansion, means that it is in a state of motion which implies that not only the distance between various celestial bodies (Hubble's Law) - planets, stars, galaxies, etc. is increasing, but also the distance between the atoms of elements those bodies are comprised of, and between the "parts" of those atoms, i.e. the quarks which constitute hadrons, leptons, etc. (EOU Model).
   The thought that this applies to us, our bodies and everything around us, should not make us worry. According to the suggested model, our Sun would, in some fifteen billion years, which is roughly how old the Universe is, "expand" only by 0.00001 percent of its size in this manner. The distance between atoms is on the scale of 10-10 m. In, let's say, five thousand years, it would be greater by only 10-22 m. The Pyramids in Egypt, which are just about that old, have in all that time grown by a one- millionth part of a millimeter, which makes about 10-9 ratio to their size. Such a small relative growth in size is impossible to measure, especially in such a long time interval. A number of generations could not measure this, since the measurement etalons (e.g. meters), change their "size", while the relative ratio remains the same, which could create a "picture" that nothing is actually changing. Still, although they "remain the same", they, as we say, "grow old", so the "passing of time" has left its mark after all, which is something we can see (e.g. as a change in structure, mechanical qualities...) Greater distancing speeds and a more significant increasing of the distance to us are a privilege of the borderline areas of Space. Of course, according to the Model, from their point of view, we are the ones "running away" towards "the outside"...
   If we accept "spatial-expansion" as reality, then the above-mentioned "problems" of the red and blue shift not only do not contradict the relativity theory, but they even support it, by confirming the positive curving of our space and in the fourth dimension, at that, which, in fact, would imply its being closed in that dimension as well.
   Owing to the described model, the question: "When did the Universe come into being?" has in some way become pointless, along with the question: "Where did the Universe come into being?".


The Big Bang and the EOU Model

   Global homogeneity of the Eternal Oscillating Universe implies the equality of all points in the four-dimensional sense as well. The Universe didn't come into existence in a specific place in the "spatial" sense, nor did it come into existence at a specific time in the "time" sense. The Big Bang isn't, nor can it be, connected to a certain time t = 0, since it would require an "absolute" (i. e. "stationary" and "unchangeable") observer. In an eternally changing Unity there is hardly anything that we could in the multi-dimensional sense declare absolutely stationary. This naturally does not mean that the Big Bang didn't happen, but that every observer is entitled to "his own" Big Bang, no matter where he is, in space and time. According to the Model, the Universe is moving in the direction of the fourth dimension at the speed of light, where the radius of the curve in the fourth dimension is around 1.5*1029 meters, and this is why the phase of "our" spatial-expansion lasts around 25 billion years. Our position in the multi-dimensional Unity is such that we currently see "our Big Bang" at a "distance" of some fifteen billion years. Even if we managed to get closer to it "in time", we still couldn't see "more clearly" the "beginning" of the Bang. In fact, we would never find that zero moment of time, just as the medieval navigators never managed to find "the end of the world". The astronauts of today would not succeed in this either, regardless the speed and the length of their travel. According to the described model, in picture 1, not even the potential time travelers would be able to find the end or the beginning...
   The development phase that the Universe is currently in is characterized by the transformation of matter from the state of vacuum into its corpuscular form (according to the model, matter "is created", through the processes of particle creation and annihilation, in succession with the development and expansion of the Universe, owing to an asymmetry in x-boson decomposition), where the mass of that matter is in proportion to the path traveled in the fourth dimension, or the extension of the diameter of "our Universe". The process thus taking place is related to the qualities of the vacuum, and is analogous to the process of condensation of water drops out of over-saturated steam during adiabatic expansion (The Wilson's Chamber). According to one of the basic assumptions of the model, the mass of a stable (in the spacetime sense) object occupying a corresponding "volume" has a value very close to the value of the object's radius squared, and this ratio remains almost the same during the whole spatial-expansion phase, and as a unique trace of the development of the Universe this ratio can be observed in all objects created in a whole range of sizes, both with objects now filling the micro-universe (proton, electron...) and with the objects in the macro-universe (stars, galaxies...). Owing to this process, in spite of a decrease in average density, this phase the Universe finishes by reaching the state of a black hole. This hypothetical object is relatively familiar to us since its qualities have come from the postulates of the Theory of Relativity. According to the Model, it is quite realistic to expect a black hole to exist, and the Universe to reach this phase of its continual motion. "Nature" has given the black hole the role that only it, owing to its characteristics, is capable of performing, which is to "turn" spatial-expansion into spatial-contraction. That phase is completely identical, but the processes going on during it are completely "reciprocal" to the processes during the phase of spatial-expansion. Of course, that is valid for us as observers, since we are "inside" our Universe. By classical contraction, the Universe would end up as a singularity. That purely abstract, mathematical object was a big headache for Einstein, whose theory it had sprung from, and for a whole string of his followers. Fortunately for us, the Spatial-contraction ends not as a singularity, but as a white hole. This odd object is no less "exotic" than the singularity, but it is still "more real" and its existence is more likely, for the values characteristic for it, although extremely "small" are still real. On the dimensional scale they are very distant from "our world", but now matter how small, they are still different from zero, and are therefore real values. In any case, compared to singularity, even a white hole is infinitely big. (!)
   The white hole is an object, but also a state that the Universe goes through in its "development", i.e. eternal motion. In the white hole phase the spatial-contraction "turns" into spatial-expansion, in the manner "reciprocal" to the process in the black hole phase. Using the theory of stable objects, it can be demonstrated that the Universe becomes a black hole at the moment when its radius reaches the value of 2,33*1029 meters, which would correspond to the "elapsed time" of 2.79*1020 seconds, or around 25 billion years.
   In an analogy to this, the spatial-contraction phase lasts just as long. (In the multi-dimensional sense this means that we assume the same paths traveled). It remains yet to "determine" how long the phases of black, or white hole last.
   The qualities of these objects originate from the M/R ratio, where M is the object's mass contained within its radius R. During the "development" of the Universe, both in the present phase of spatial-expansion, and in the other phases, the ratio changes in the above-mentioned way, which means that there is a change in the so-called second cosmic velocity, which characterizes a given object from speeds close to zero to the speeds close to the "greatest possible speed" in nature. The beginning of the black hole phase we have determined by the speed of light, because that is the speed limit at which the ratio M/R is such that the gravitational energy contained inside the Schwarzschild radius "closes space", i.e. it no longer allows the distancing of objects, even photons, moving at the same, or slower speed, so that it really turns "black". It is evident that the possibility of distancing from an object continually changes from a minimal speed when the M/R ratio has its minimum value, to the moment when M/R reaches the value when the second cosmic velocity equals the speed of light, and then very close to the maximum possible speed in nature. Therefore, to express it figuratively, our black hole ISN'T ALWAYS and for ALL objects (completely) "black". It, "through shades of gray" intertwines with the white hole, and the opposite is also true (this is in an associative sense an EXTREMELY inspiring sentence). Obviously the motion or development of the Universe from the white hole phase and the transition into the black hole phase is not a "sharp", sudden transformation, when some terribly sudden changes occur, but a "mildly" and slowly changing, but continual process in which "various" objects have "various" forms of manifestation. However, the black hole phase and its analogous white hole phase, we can still differentiate from this continual process on the basis of the "limit", or better, the value that the speed of light has (for us) and in a way imposes, because upon reaching it the way we see the motion of an object in "our three dimensions" significantly changes.
   The length of this phase has been determined on the basis of an analogy between a circle and a sphere, or a sphere and a hyper-sphere, keeping in mind that in the black hole phase first the spatial-expansion slows down, i.e. the motion towards the fourth dimension, from the speed equal to the speed of light to zero, and then the motion of the Universe speeds up to the same value in the opposite direction, when it, for us, goes into the spatial-contraction phase. It is calculated that the black hole phase lasts approximately t = 2.77*1020 seconds. We have obtained an almost identical time value for the length of the spatial-expansion, which certainly contributes to the beauty and simplicity of the suggested model. Observing the harmony and symmetry in nature, thus expressed, we can assume that the white hole phase, and the spatial-contraction phase are of the same duration as their "opposites". It follows that the total duration of T cycle is around a hundred billion years, or T = 3.15* 1021 seconds. During this time interval light would travel the path of s = 9.4*1029 meters. Since the path is identical to the direction of our fourth dimension, it is obvious that the curve radius in the fourth dimension is R = s/2
П = 1.5*1029 meters, almost completely equal to the radius the Universe reached after entering the black hole phase. It follows from this that the Universe is in motion in all four dimensions to "the same value", keeping in mind, of course, the analogy between the sphere and the hyper-sphere, which is definitely a confirmation of the idea that the Universe is closed inside itself, but not only in the "classical" three-dimensional or "spatial" sense, but also in the four-dimensional or spacetime sense!!!


Relative Relativity

   What this really means is that we should see the objects in our world, which are FOR US on "the other side" of the maximum radius, as DISTANCING FROM US, and at a speed greater than the speed of light, where their 'real' speed would have random values for different observers, but an observer who would at the moment be situated "ON THE OTHER SIDE", would see the same objects as APPROACHING him (so the problem of the blue shift isn't really a problem), and at a speed slower than light speed, in our way and in the sense of our spatial-contraction. It is very important to note that this goes only for the observers who are approximately "SIMULTANEOUSLY" situated on the approximately "opposite" sides of the sphere, or in our case, for our world, at the same moment one observer must be "inside" and the other "outside" a certain volume which is analogous to a circle, where they are "opposite" each other in the same analogy. The idea of a "simultaneous - opposite" position of a four-dimensional Universe corresponds to the "diametrically" opposite points of the hyper-sphere, analogous to the North and South Pole of our Earth.
   Let us note something equally important. With any kind of motion at sub-light speed through our space, we would always remain "inside". Even if in moving through our world we reach a point which in our coordinate system corresponds to the point where the "opposite" observer is, he would not be there even if he hadn't moved from the spot in the three-dimensional sense, because we are again "inside", even at that point, and he is still outside, "on the other side" for us. This is a little bit difficult to grasp, so let us first clarify what happens if we leave the observer stationary at the starting point and we go around our world, which we can perform by going always in the same direction, as it is closed in the spatial sense. When we arrive at the starting spatial coordinates, our observer will be exactly where we left him in the spatial sense, but he will not be in the same place in the multi-dimensional sense. We can understand that, although he didn't move in three dimensions, he will due to spatial expansion be in a different place, with a different coordinate in the fourth dimension. Thus we did get to the same spot in the spatial sense, but in the four-dimensional sense our coordinates are not the same. His coordinate in the fourth dimension is "higher" than ours, since he "wasn't" moving, and we can say that he is in a "greater" hyper-sphere than ours, or which is easier for us to understand, "out" of our hyper-sphere, which in the simplest terms means that he is dislocated "outwards" in time, i.e. in his coordinate system "more time has elapsed", or in the plainest language he has aged more. Therefore, the only way to get to "the other side" is to move faster than the speed at which light travels.
   Further explanations are unnecessary. Relativity has reached it full expression. The speed of a moving object that is greater than the speed of light for us, is for "the other side" observer slower than light speed. While the world we live in is in the state of spatial- expansion for us, to the "opposite" observer it is in the state of spatial-contraction. When we are in the black hole state, he is in the white hole state. Of course, the opposite applies as well.
   Therefore our Universe is oscillating, but in the above described manner, so that "simultaneously", while its "inner"(for us) part is spatially expanding, at the same time its "outer" (to us) part is spatially contracting. Matter contained in the same multidimensional "sphere", we can quite clearly see now, neither disappears from one (inner) world, nor appears from nowhere in the other "outside" world. It just changes the place of existence according to its form and manner of motion, where black and white holes play an important role, working with their previously described mechanisms. Owing to the manner of its motion matter is seen differently, depending on its relative motion in relation to the observer.


The Twins Paradox - A New Interpretation

   Moving at super-light speeds implies motion "on the other side" from our "inside", where everything is reciprocal to our Universe. This kind of motion also implies a motion towards the fourth dimension, only now in the opposite direction. All of this is evident in Lorentz's transformations. As we have already mentioned, the difference between the speed of light and the greatest possible speed in nature is very small in its absolute amount, but their relative ratio figuring in the formula is important, as it makes possible a great span on the time scale. From the formula we see that time equals zero only at achieving the greatest possible speed in nature, which is very difficult to achieve in view of the increase in mass. What is very important here is that, owing to one of our assumptions, time does not equal zero at reaching light speed, nor is it an irrational value, if the velocity is greater than the speed of light. On the contrary, it has a real value, and the time dilatation grows the higher the speed and the closer it approaches the greatest possible speed in nature. However, after passing the "light barrier", or with the object moving at a velocity greater than the speed of electro-magnetic wave (light), the dilatation acquires an opposite sign for a 'stationary' observer, so in relation to him a clock in such system would begin to speed up its work. So the time dilatation would for such an observer become a time contraction. Relativity does not discriminate between the observer and the moving object since it is only concerned with their relative speeds, so to "a super-light cosmonaut" it would also appear that the observer's clock was speeding up. (This is the so-called "knot " of the Twins paradox). However, only an object which is really in motion in the three-dimensional sense has a velocity vector containing a component in the direction of the fourth dimension, so the time dilatation is associated ONLY WITH ITS SYSTEM (this is the crucial difference between my interpretation and the classical relativity theory interpretation). For an object moving "on the other side", or "where the three-dimensional ball is inside out", that is "outside" to an "inside"observer, the curvature in the fourth dimension is in the opposite direction, and so is the radial acceleration, so for us "on this side" the object would have a speed component with the same direction as our, already present, motion towards the fourth dimension. To put it in a simpler way, his time "goes by" faster in comparison to ours, i.e. his clock ticks faster. Let us remember the words "in comparison to ours", as they are very important. Observers already "there", "outside" to our "inside", for us who are in the state of spatial expansion, are in the state of spatial contraction, so for them their faster and faster motion in relation to us is actually a slowing down, as the relative speed of an object which is increasing in relation to "us" is decreasing for "them". Essentially, the curvature in the fourth dimension is the same. We as observers are the ones, owing to our position and manner of motion, who see it in a different way.
   This will seem much more acceptable if we recall that, for example, all of us on Earth see a free-falling object as moving vertically with the direction towards the Earth's surface. This same motion another observer would see in a completely different way. For an observer on the Sun, for example, the object's trajectory would have the shape of a parabola...
   As we have seen, the "inside" and the "outside" are in fact reflections of the same essential thing, seen differently by different observers. In this sense "materialization of thoughts" is no longer impossible, just like travel to various, in space and/ or in time separate worlds by means of thoughts. And anyway, why not? Human thinking is definitely characterized by electro-magnetic phenomena, and they spread in a multi-dimensional way, according to the model. As we have demonstrated on a lot of examples, this kind of motion has nothing in common with our classical idea of motion where a cyclist has traveled five meters in two seconds!    


Universe as Unity

   Looking at a l cr diagram of stable objects, you can see that the model of Eternal Oscillating Universe is almost universal. In this diagram, Universe is only one of the many possible objects, situated in the second quadrant of the diagram, where objects of the macro-universe are situated (planets, stars, galaxies). Objects of the micro-universe (proton, electron, neutron) are in the third quadrant. Man and his environment are in the "middle", the area between the third and the second quadrant. The fourth quadrant most probably belongs to the sphere of "spiritual" aspect of our reality.
   The exclusivity of the model is reflected in that all those (stable) objects are completely equal in terms of TOTAL equality of structural essence of them all, including the "medium" they move in, be they of corpuscular of wave nature.
   Everything occurring in the Unity (of spacetimematter), happens through an interaction of parts and the whole, one and the same essence expressed by energy density, where the principle of resonant relations introduces order and harmony on a whole scale of sizes. This is the very reason why it is possible to note a whole range of interesting "coincidences", analogies and similarities coming from the "deep" and universal "interconnection" of the very ("individual") objects and their influences on one another. Let us illustrate the harmony and order of these, otherwise very complex inter-relations, with a few most interesting details.

a)   By comparing objects it can be observed that every minimum energy, or maximum wavelength of a certain wave range, corresponds (roughly) to the maximum energy of some particle, or its minimum (Compton's) wavelength. Therefore, there is some, albeit very rough analogy between (the number of) different kinds of radiation by quality and the number of basic stable particles.

b)   It is a really interesting fact that for example, Compton's wavelength (L. de Broglie's formula) of a (hypothetical) object whose (fictitious) radius dimension is on the same scale as the Planck's length is almost identical to the value as the (current) radius of the Universe (table 1). It is obvious that Nature observes the global symmetry, imposing a certain finiteness (but not in the sense of "finality"), "of the same quantity" on both sides of the dimensional scale.

c)   It is an even more unusual fact that an electro-encephalogram records electrical activities of the cerebral cortex in the shapes of curves to express the rhythms of the brain. One of these rhythms is called alpha waves. On the basis of that we can define some "alpha waves-particle" which can be associated with a stationary mass of m=2.3*10-50 kg and a radius of r = 0.2*10-26 m. The obtained result is really extraordinary since the mass of the Universe has been estimated at around 1053 kg, and its radius at 1026 m, which would roughly represent reciprocal values to those obtained for the "alpha waves-particle". In the associative sense we can say that Universe and Thought are equally "distant" from us...

d)   It is also very interesting that with objects exhibiting dualism (in some experiments corpuscular and in some wave qualities), the value of their real or fictitious radius is roughly equal to the corresponding (Compton's) wavelength. With all other radiuses the difference is much greater, and it is the greater the more "distant" the objects are. Of course, with "extremely" corpuscular objects the corresponding radius has a much greater value than the wavelength, while the case is opposite with objects from the field of radiation. Their 'corresponding' radius is so small it is negligible, and the wavelength is ("measurable") great. This is indeed, not only interesting, but also very inspiring...

   Let us now list similarities between some quantitative-qualitative features of the model and some esoteric insights in certain religions.

e)   For illustration purposes we can recall a very high degree of associative connection between cosmological-cosmogonic insights of Jainism and the model of Eternal Oscillating Universe. Namely, Jainists interpret the world as relations among deities (mountain, river, planets...) expressed through "colour tables", from which we can easily establish a strong correlation to a sequence of wavelengths belonging to certain stable objects, because it is clear that the corresponding wavelength of an object can also be expressed as its "colour"...

f)   It is still the most interesting fact that the model in its essence corresponds completely to ancient Veda descriptions of the world. According to texts in Bhagavad-Gita, which is accepted as the essence of Upanishad: ..." With the start of Brahma's day, this multitude of living creatures is created, and with the arrival of Brahma's night, they are all destroyed...According to "human measurement", a thousand ages together make one Brahma's day, and his night lasts just as long. One Yuga cycle lasts 4,300,000 years. It is estimated that twelve Brahma's hours equal 4,300,000 times 1000 years, and the duration of Brahma's night is just the same. One month is comprised of thirty such days, and one year of twelve months. Brahma lives a hundred such years...Destruction of the material world happens in two ways. Partial destruction of the world occurs every 4,300,000*1000 sun years, or at the end of Brahmaloka, which is the highest planet of the material world. During this partial destruction, the highest planets such as Brahmaloka are not destroyed, but at the end of every period of 4,300,000*1000*2*30*12*100 sun years, the entire cosmic manifestation sinks into immaterial body..." One can note here that the terms "space" and "time" are treated as completely equal, serving to describe the same reality, which we "western people" can only wonder at (and admire it). The destruction of the material world mentioned in the passage should not be taken literally (which is possible as the sentences are taken out of context of the original text). According to Hindu eschatology the Universe and the circle of its re-creation completely correspond to the individual circle of periodic transfers of the soul, so during the "great break up" the entire Universe is completely emptied, and only Prakrti remains (original indifference and immobility of matter) while the original spirit Purusha draws all souls into itself. After this a new cycle begins. Out of Prakrti a new Brahman appears to create a new world, and the original spirit Purusha and all souls are resurrected (...). The similarity to our model isn't just qualitative. If we calculate the time between one "birth" and "destruction" of the world (4,300,000*1000*2*30*365*24*60*60) we get the figure of 9.76*1021 seconds. It is almost fascinating that the time of one period (or oscillation) of Eternal Oscillating Universe has been estimated at 100 billion years, which is 3.15*1021 seconds, which corresponds amazingly precisely with the "duration of one Brahma's life"...

g)   One of the perhaps most controversial assumptions of the model is the one that every observer in the Unity is entitled to his own Big Bang. However, this idea is nothing new in the field of idealism. Similar theories can be found, for example, in the teachings of a great modern Christian mystic, known by the simple name of Dascalos (Gr. Teacher). According to P. Vujicin (Consciousness: The Scientific Challenge of the 21st Century, D.Rakovic, Dj. Koruga, Belgrade, Cigoja Stampa, 1996): "...Logos expresses Itself within the framework of a civilization, within a planet, at a point when human consciousness reaches a level which makes the manifestation of Logos possible and comprehensible. Manifestation of Logos in worlds is within the static state of Absolute. Christ Logos is forever born and crucified within the static state in the universal memory of the Absolute. And this static state is expressed in time and space depending on the level of consciousness possessed by the entities which have passed through the idea of man..." On principle, this can be understood as one "point" inside the Unity, which offers the alternative of completely different "realization of the event", in some other "time circle", naturally, which is an analogy to our idea that every observer is entitled to "his own" Big Bang...

h)   The pre-definition of some "future" events by a cyclic repeating planet disposition makes the basis of astrology. Official science denies, or at best skirts the possibility of changing the direction of the so-called "arrow of time" although there is no reason for this, as all formulas of classical mechanics, relativity theory and quant theory are reversible in time. However, as according to the EOU model the "space" and the "time" component are treated COMPLETELY equally, a cyclic repeating planet disposition implies a similar (BY NO MEANS the same) sequence of events in its own time circle. In this sense everything happening to us from time to time makes one whole-event, in our "present" then, the battle on Kosovo field, World War I and II, are in fact one and the same event (whose sequence of separate events was probably started at a similar position of planets) realized in a different way - experienced by different observers in different "circles" of (passing) time on an otherwise endless spiral (which is the basis of EOU Model). Therefore, from the aspect of EOU Model the possibility of interaction of "past"-"future" events is also acceptable. According to esoterical insights, the basic functional principle of the "spiritual world" (IV quadrant) is that similar is attracted to similar, where, in my opinion, the same (or at least very similar) laws of quantization of spacetimematter as in "our" world probably apply, which offers an opportunity to actualize (or more simply, "thicken") different qualities of the same or similar essence (from "redder", i.e. "harder" (more earthly) to the "bluer", softer, calmer (more heavenly) vibrations), creating the possibility of existence (and creation) of a whole range of astral objects which materialize sooner or later (since realization is the ultimate goal of every actualization)...In keeping with this, it is quite possible that by "positive thinking" in the associative sense one can provoke the realization of mostly positive events and thus directly influence a completely different development and outcome of some perhaps already globally defined tendencies. It is my opinion that not even orthodox science can defy these assumptions, since it is a long known and several times confirmed fact in quant physics that the scientist, while conducting an experiment, affects its realization by his mere presence...

i)   The table in the appendix can lead to another observation, a really unusual one, illustrating the beauty and harmony of "our" world. It is very interesting that "midway" between the world of particles and the world of waves we should find the proton, the particle whose radius is almost completely the same as its corresponding Compton's wavelength. It is a well-known fact that proton is the particle with the longest half-life period, or the most stable particle in the natural world. Keeping that in mind, we can say that it is the pillar of the Universe, the middle point between "our" (the "inside") world and "the other one" (according to the model "the one outside to our inside"),which in keeping with the qualities of the IV quadrant area in the l cr diagram (gr.3) we invest with the spiritual aspect of our reality...We can also remark that Man HIMSELF (as one of the stable objects) is "inside" in relation to some objects of the Unity, and "outside" in relation to others, which means that mankind has been given much more responsible and important role in our own destiny and destinies of others than we are (at the moment) aware of. The future will show whether WE deserve it.


Instead of a Conclusion

   Finally, let us recall that the currently estimated mass of the Universe, in contrast to other theories where this value is of crucial importance, in many models (even in the standard space evolution theory, the Big Bang model and the inflation theory, for example) explained with the help of quite clear and yet insufficiently convincing arguments, is in this model completely irrelevant to the model's mechanism. It (it's value and structure) is both the cause and the result of very simple, harmonious, or better, "resonant", globally homogenous processes, which occur (periodically, cyclically) in the spacetimematter Unity.

   In general, and "instead of a proper" conclusion, we can say that, according to the model, everything around us can be seen in numerous ways, according to our wishes and goal, and also our abilities and exclusively in way corresponding to our own being and our position in the spacetimematter continuum (this sentence takes on its full meaning in multi-dimensional aspect). Universe (and space too) is "such as it is", due to a general harmony and dialectic unity of the black and white holes, for the time being hypothetical "generators" of basic, essential-structural phases of a dimensionally higher form of motion of spacetimematter, in this model described by the terms spatial -expansion and spatial-contraction, cyclically changing periods of development, evolution and involution of the Universe, and of course, of the "eternal", eternally changing Unity.

Table I

Object

m (kg)

r (m)

p (g/cm3)

lc (m)

Planck length

0.15*10-67

0.15*10-36

1039

1.47*1026

a wave-corpuscule

2.38*10-50

0.26*10-26

1027

0.3*108

Neutrino*

1.3*10-35

1.45*10-20

1021

1.7*10-7

Electron**

9.1*10-31

0.6*10-17

1018

2.4*10-12

Proton

1.66*10-27

0.7*10-15

1015

1.33*10-15

Earth

6*1024

6.38*106

5.5

0.37*10-66

Sun

2*1030

7*108

1.4

1.1*10-72

Galaxy

3.3*1041

4.3*1020

10-24

6.5*10-84

Galaxy Clasters

3.3*1043

0.93*1022

10-27

6.5*10-86

University

1.2*1052

1.42*1026

10-30

1.47*10-94

Photon

1.6*10-38

1.5*10-21

1021

1.35*10-4

X waves*

8.2*10-35

2.7*10-20

1021

2.69*10-8

g waves

1.65*10-33

7.3*10-19

1018

1.34*10-9

Cosmic rays**

8.2*10-31

0.58*10-17

1018

2.69*10-12



copyright Goran Marjanovic
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